There are multiple ways to perpetuate gender bias. That’s why it’s so critical to be aware of our cognitive biases (our own list is already quite long) that make us have a preference for men in power. In the UK, as of last year, only seven percent of FTSE 100 companies had a female chief executive at the head of their organisation (as for FTSE 250 companies, only five companies are headed by women). There are also far too few women in power in the political world, or in media. And the gender gap remains stubbornly high (around 17%, but there are controversies as to how it’s measured).
Recent legislation has forced companies to disclose more figures of the gender pay gap. In the UK, the Gender Pay Gap Regulations, also known as the Equality Act 2010, came into force in 2017. All employers with 250 or more employees are now required to publish data on their gender pay gap. But progress is slow. Not every aspect of the gender gap is disclosed. Women still face discrimination, harassment and bias.
When it comes to bias, it’s not uncommon to come across discrimination deniers, i.e. people who deny there is any discrimination (or harassment) in their organisation. “Everyone is treated fairly in our organisation”, “we are a meritocratic company”, “there is no sexism here”, “I’m no sexist”… Interestingly, according to an edifying study published in June 2020 in Sciences Advances, it is precisely those ‘deniers’ who perpetuate bias the most!
Why denying the problem is a problem
The study published by researchers from the University of Exeter and Skidmore College shows, with figures and a survey to back it up, that biases are stronger among those who deny them. “Importantly, those who thought bias was not happening in their field were the key drivers of it—a “high risk” group (including men and women), that, as shown, can be readily identified. Thus, as other professions make gains in women’s representation, it is vital to recognise that discrimination can persist—perpetuated by those who think it is not happening,” the authors write.
In those organisations that might be said to be more egalitarian and where female representation has (somewhat) advanced, it is quite common for leaders to fall into ‘negationism’ and claim that bias and differential treatment no longer exist. This in turn causes future progress to stall, or even causes regression.
Progress in terms of equality, diversity and inclusion is by no means linear and inevitable. It is most often the result of historical breaks and binding measures.
What does it mean for human resources?
A few years ago, the British government started demanding that all businesses with more than 250 employees reveal their gender pay gap online. This made it undeniable that there is a consistent pattern of gender inequality across all sectors and that women are extremely under-represented in all top, best-paid jobs. The impact of the legislation, as someone once wrote in The Guardian, is that “companies are stripped naked…and attitudes towards women are revealed with uncomfortable clarity.”
In airlines and banks, for example, it became much harder to deny there’s a (huge) gender gap (at EasyJet, pilots are 94% male, while flight attendants are 69% female). But company representatives continue to try and “defend” the gender pay gap by putting forward to limits of government’s reporting requirements. They say the government’s method of calculating the gap is “too simplistic” to reflect the complexity of their situation. But the truth is that the new requirement makes it hard to deny the gap, the way managers have for a long time.
Controversy over how to measure the gender pay gap is not new. In fact, it explains why so many different figures can be found: estimates of the gap in the UK range from a bit more than 17% to 45%! And that gap is even higher when it comes to pensions.
What every study does agree on is that reducing the gender gap and diversifying human resources is a powerful performance lever for companies. Those with a more diverse workforce tend to perform better from a financial point of view (according to a famous McKinsey study, “Why Diversity Matters”, egalitarian companies are 35% more efficient).
“Negationism” doesn’t just hinder performance, it also degrades a company’s employer brand considerably. And it prevents the victims of discrimination or harassment from telling their HR department, which causes the managers in denial to be all the more convinced that there really is no problem with their team…
How can it be remedied?
Awareness alone is generally not enough, because of moral licensing: “the companies that talk about meritocracy the most are often the least meritocratic.”
Bias awareness programmes can nevertheless be seen as a starting point, provided, as economist Iris Bohnet points out in her book What Works: Gender Equality by Design (see our “must-read” article), that participants’ empathy be developed. “Bias reduction programmes work when participants are invited to put themselves in the shoes of the victims of discrimination.”
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